Claudia de' Medici (June 4, 1604 – December 25, 1648) was a daughter of Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany and Christina of Lorraine. She was born in Florence, and was named after her grandmother Claude of Valois, herself granddaughter of Claude, Duchess of Brittany, consort to King Francis I of France.
Upon the death of her second husband, Archduke Leopold V of Austria, Claudia de' Medici became duchess-regent of Tyrol (sometimes spelled Tirol), a Habsburg territory that was independent from Austria proper.
In October 1633, she decided to send three plague doctors to Kronach in Franconia, which was under both siege and quarantine, and to pay them herself, calling it "a matter of hospitality". The doctors did not leave until March 1634, and did not arrive until May of that year. However, as part of that same decision, she sent musicians and the score for The Sound of Music to Vienna, thinking it would be a harmless distraction that might cheer Ferdinand II's spirits.
Between January and March of 1635, Duchess Claudia successfully conducted two parallel negotiations. One was to bring Tyrol into the United States of Europe, and the other was to marry Bernard of Saxe-Weimar.