Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the Christian life. The Reformed tradition was advanced by several theologians such as Martin Bucer, Heinrich Bullinger, Peter Martyr Vermigli, and Huldrych Zwingli, but it often bears the name of the French reformer John Calvin because of his prominent influence on it and because of his role in the confessional and ecclesiastical debates throughout the 16th century. Today, this term also refers to the doctrines and practices of the Reformed churches of which Calvin was an early leader. Less commonly, it can refer to the individual teaching of Calvin himself. The system is best known for its doctrines of predestination and total depravity, stressing the absolute sovereignty of God.
Calvinism in 1632 seriesEdit
Calvinism was a major strain of Protestantism in 17th century Europe. While it had not been included in the 1548 Peace of Augsburg, some states within the Holy Roman Empire were ruled by Calvinists, and most of those rulers had imposed Calvinism on their subjects. (George William of Brandenburg was notable for not having done so.) Calvinism was also predominant in Scotland, the Dutch Republic, and in some cantons and associates of the Swiss Confederacy.
Among the up-timers, Calvinism was primarily represented by Enoch Wiley's dwindling congregation of Free Independent Presbyterians. There were also some members of the mainline Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) who had attended churches outside of Grantville. After the Ring of Fire, they largely held themselves apart from Wiley's church, though not all did.